Of the many sites that Neil and I planned to see during our stay in Paris, I was most excited to see the Château de Versailles. The beauty of its gilded halls and the splendor of its former inhabitants loom large in our social and cultural imagination. The Château has housed a few of the most intriguing, even tragic, French historical figures and has served as the backdrop to some truly dramatic scenes. The Château, its magnificent gardens, and the other impressive buildings that lay within its grounds have earned it many admirers and imitators1 worldwide. Consisting of 2,300 rooms spread over a distance of 63,154 square meters (207,198 square feet), Versailles is overwhelming, even to modern eyes. It’s impossible to appreciate how fantastical it would have seemed in the 17th and 18th centuries, when it was host to the French court at the height of its decadence and hubris.
It’s going to take a concentrated effort on my part to try and tell the story of Versailles through a medium as modest as a blog post. In fact, I’m going to use twelve different posts to break down this endeavour. Six posts, including this one, will cover its history: part 2 will cover Louis XV-Louis XVI (until 1783); part 3 will discuss the events that took place from 1786-June 20, 1789; part 4, June 23, 1789-October 6, 1789; part 5, 1789-1870; and part 6, 1870-present day. Two posts will recap our visit to the main residence: part 1 covers the front gates, the Marble Courtyard, the King’s Private Apartments and the Royal Opera House; part 2 the Royal Chapel, the King’s State Apartments, part of the History of France Museum, and the Hall of Mirrors. Four posts will go into detail about the other residences found on the grounds: two will detail the Grand Trianon, with part 1 discussing its history and part 2 a tour of the residence itself; a third post will feature the Petit Trianon; and, finally, a fourth post will cover the Hameau de la Reine (the Queen’s Hamlet). There is a lot to learn about and see at Versailles!
The Château de Versailles served as the primary royal residence of the French monarchy from 1682 until the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. It is referred to as a château rather than a palais because it was located in the countryside², about 20 kilometers (12 miles) southwest of the centre of Paris. Notable figures in the history of the Château de Versailles include several guys named Louis, each accompanied by a number (XIII-XVI). I’ll go through each of them in turn.
The place name Versailles has its root in the Latin word vertere (“to turn the soil”) and the Old French versail (meaning a ploughed field). The discovery of a Merovingian cemetery south of the Château in 2006 suggests that there have been people living in the area since at least the beginning of the 8th century (the Merovingians were the ruling dynasty of the Franks from the middle of the 5th century until 751 C.E.). The earliest recorded reference to Versailles can be found around 1038 in a charter that contained the signature of Hugo de Versailliis, the seigneur (lord) of Versailles. Versailles was a small medieval village of 200 peasant families that contained a small castle and a church, with its inhabitants living in modest thatch- and slate-roofed cottages. The town’s main prosperity came from its location along the intersection of several roads, including a main route that linked Paris and Normandy. The area was made up of thick woodland and low-lying marshland, with a few orchards and open fields where vines and grain were grown. A windmill once stood on a mound where the present-day château resides. The forest outside of the village was well-stocked with game such as pheasants, boars, stags, hare, as well as wolves. In the middle of the 15th century, wealthy Parisians started buying property in the area. Martial de Loménie, an influential state financier, built a manor house. He petitioned the Crown into allowing the village to have a weekly market and four annual fairs. A Protestant, Lomênie was killed during the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris in August 1572. His property, as well as the seigneury of Versailles, was purchased by Albert de Gondi in 1575. Gondi was a Florentine man who had held a prominent position in the court of Henri II (1519-1559, reigned 1547-1559) and Catherine de Medici (1519-1589, ruled as Queen Consort of France 1547-1559 and as Queen Regent for most of 1559-1589). Gondi and his family invited Henri IV (1553-1610, reigned 1589-1610) to Versailles on several hunting trips in 1589, 1604, 1607, and 1609. Versailles was located between Paris and the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, a favoured royal residence that had first been built by Louis VI (1081-1137, reigned 1108-1137) in 1124. Versailles was convenient for a day-long hunting trip, with Henri IV occasionally staying overnight in the Gondi manor house. Henri IV brought his young son, six-year old Louis (later crowned Louis XIII), along with him on August 24, 1607. The boy’s first hunting trip here was a success, as he managed to catch a hare, five or six quail, and two partridges.
Louis XIII (1601-1643, reigned 1610-1643) made several hunting trips out to Versailles in the 1610s. In 1623 he purchased some elevated land near the village windmill (which was demolished) and had a small hunting lodge built, which is shown in a 3-D model below3. The lodge was 24 metres long (79 feet) by 6 metres (20 feet) wide. There were four sides to the building, which enclosed a small central court. A protective ditch surrounded the residence. The main wing of the building is the one located towards the back, in the west. This is where the King’s apartments were located. The ground floor of the main wing contained four bedrooms, and the floor above held three rooms and a gallery that overlooked the courtyard. There are two other wings that attach to the lodge’s main wing on its northern and southern sides. The north wing contained the kitchens, service rooms, the house of the concierge, and four spare rooms for Louis XIII’s companions. The south wing contained storerooms, latrines, and four more guest rooms. There were no rooms built to accommodate Louis XIII’s Queen, Anne of Austria, or her ladies. The hunting lodge was strictly for Louis XIII and the members of his hunting party. The fourth and final side of the residence (located at the front, in the east) is not a wing but, instead, a protective ten-foot high wall that contains an entry gate. The hunting lodge and its grounds covered about 2.5 acres. Louis XIII first stayed in it in June 1624.
Versaille’s first instance of starring in a major moment of French political intrigue came in November 1630. Louis XIII’s mother, Marie de Medici (1575-1642, Queen Consort 1600-1610, Queen Regent 1610-1617), had been increasingly determined to get rid of her son’s chief minister (and her rival), Cardinal Richelieu. At the Luxembourg Palace on November 11, the Queen Mother faced off against Richelieu in front of Louis XIII. She demanded that her son choose between them. Louis XIII left for Versailles after the confrontation, leaving Marie de Medici with the impression that she had triumphed. She and her supporters celebrated the apparent termination of Richelieu. However, that same evening, the King summoned the Cardinal to Versailles. There, the two men had a long private discussion during which Louis XIII agreed to reinstate Richelieu and dismiss his mother. The royal carriage returned to Paris with the restored Richelieu aboard. Upon spotting it, a witty courtier named Guillaume Bautru, the Count of Serrant, gave the whole affair its name by proclaiming: “it’s the day of the dupes!” Marie de Medici was ordered to leave Paris for Compiègne. She would later flee and continue to plot against the Cardinal before dying in 1642, still in exile, never seeing her son again.
Louis XIII began to spend more time in the countryside and away from Paris, basing his court out of the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. He often made trips out to Versailles, Fontainebleu, and Compiègne to escape the pressures of court. In 1631, Louis XIII decided to demolish his hunting lodge at Versailles and had architect Philibert Le Roy build a bigger, but still modest, château in its place, shown below. The new residence was made of red brick and white stone, and had a black slate roof. In May 1632, Louis XIII purchased the seigneury of Versailles from the Gondi family. Construction was carried out on the new château from 1631-1634. Gardens and a large park surrounding the estate were also laid out. In 1639, P. Claude de Varennes’ Le voyage de France, dressé pour la commodité des François et des estrangers (The trip to France, prepared for the convenience of the French and foreigners) was the first guidebook (of what would become many) to recommend that Paris visitors check out the nearby royal residence of Versailles. By 1643, the grounds of Versailles had grown to cover 312 hectares (771 acres).
However, this second residence was still considered as being “far from royal” and its colour scheme of red, white, and black led to it being called “a little castle of cards.” One of Louis XIII’s courtiers, Duc (Duke) de Saint Simon, wrote that it was “the saddest and most unrewarding of places with no view, no woods, no water and no earth; for it is all shifting sand and marsh, and the air is consequently bad.” The smell was due to the surrounding marshland with its pools of stagnant water, and was especially pungent in the hot summer months. The “puny” residence fell far short of the grandeur of the Tuileries and Louvre palaces in Paris and the nearby Germain-en-Laye. Louis XIII did not mind this; rather, he preferred to keep Versailles as a solitary retreat and rarely extended invites to guests that were not already members of his small hunting parties. Even Queen Anne (1601-1666, Queen Consort 1615-1643, Queen Regent 1643-1651) never spent the night at Versailles. Although rooms had been built to accommodate her, Louis XIII always arranged to have her taken to Paris or Saint-Germain-en-Laye to sleep.
It would be Louis XIII’s son, Louis XIV (1638-1715, reigned 1643-1715), who transformed Versailles into the grand pleasure palace that it is recognized as today. By the time Louis XIV was born in 1638, his parents had been married for 23 years. They had already grieved the loss of four stillborn children. Louis XIV’s birth was considered a miracle of God, and so he was named Louis-Dieudonné, the God-given. Louis XIV was first sent to Versailles in October 1641 at the age of three along with his younger brother, Philippe, to protect them from a smallpox epidemic that had reached Saint-Germaine-en-Laye. Throughout his childhood, Louis XIV was encouraged to think of himself as literally being God’s gift to the people of France. This would later shape his ideas concerning rule. He believed in the “Divine Right of Kings”: that a monarch derives the right to rule directly from the will of God, and is not subject to any earthly authority. As an absolute monarch and the centre of all power, France revolved around Louis XIV in the same way the earth orbits the sun. Thus Louis XIV identified himself with Apollo, the Greek and Roman god of the sun. His use of the sun as a personal emblem would later earn him the title he is readily known by today, the “Sun King.”
Louis XIII died on May 14, 1643 of illness at the age of 41. He was succeeded by his young son, Louis XIV, aged four. Anne of Austria assumed the Regency and entrusted the government to Cardinal Richelieu’s successor, chief minister Cardinal Mazarin. The French court moved to the Palais-Royal in Paris, the former home of Richelieu. Versailles was abandoned for a decade. Louis XIV returned to Versailles in 1651, at the age of thirteen, where he participated in a hunt. The location outside of Paris must have appealed to the young King, who was in the midst of fighting a series of civil wars known as the Fronde (the Parlementary Fronde, 1648-1649; the Fronde of the Princes, 1650-1653). On two separate occasions, Louis XIV had been held prisoner by revolutionary forces. He was eager to find an excuse to leave Paris behind. He visited Versailles a few more times over the next few years. He took a greater interest in the property following his marriage in 1660 to María-Teresa of Spain (1638-1683, Queen Consort 1660-1683) and the death of Mazarin in 1661.
María-Teresa’s marriage to Louis XIV came about as a result of the Treaty of Pyrenees, which was signed on November 7, 1659. The treaty and the marriage put an end to the nearly twenty-five years of war (beginning in 1635) that had raged between France and Spain. Louis XIV and María-Teresa were first cousins as they shared a grandfather, Henri IV of France (Henri IV was the father of María-Teresa’s mother, Elisabeth of France and Louis XIV’s father, Louis XIII). Upon her marriage, María-Teresa’s name was changed to Marie-Thérèse to make it sound more French (I’m going to compromise and refer to her as Maria-Theresa, which is the name used in most English-language accounts). She was shy, insecure, and spoke hardly a word of French—a sharp contrast to her new husband, who positioned himself at the centre of French political life. Five of their six children would die in early childhood (the sixth, the all-important male heir, Louis the Grand Dauphin, would also predecease his father at the age of 49, but not before continuing the line with a son of his own). Louis XIV remained faithful to Maria-Theresa for the first year of their marriage, but he then went on to have many affairs. Maria-Theresa became good friends with her mother-in-law, Anne of Austria, with whom she spent a lot of time.
A portrait of Maria-Theresa4 at the age of 15.
Louis XIV had a greater role in mind for Versailles than the one that it had served for his father as a private hunting retreat. Louis XIV wanted a place where he could gather his entire court around him, something that no other royal residence had the capacity for. He wanted to keep all his advisers and provincial rulers close, so that he could keep his eye on them and prevent them from plotting against him, as they had during the Fronde. Louis XIV also wanted to expand Versailles so that he could host and entertain on a grand scale. In 1661, Louis XIV gifted the Palais-Royal to his younger brother, Philippe d’Orléans. He had no more personal need for it, as he now had a new residence in mind.
Below are two pictures, the first of them a repeat, to remind you what the Château de Versailles looked like when it was constructed by Louis XIII. Louis XIV is about to make some big changes, so I wanted to put them here for easy comparison.
The front of the Château de Versailles prior to Louis XIV’s modifications.
The back of the Château.
From 1661-1668, Louis XIV ordered some building work inside the existing château at Versailles as well as the addition of some outbuildings. You can see these changes in the painting below, which depicts Versailles and its gardens around 1667-1668. These works were guided by architect Louis Le Vau and French painter Charles Le Brun5. Louis XIV also hired French landscape architect and gardener André Le Nȏtre to extend the grounds and gardens. You can see that the château built by Louis XIII remains at the heart of the Versailles residence. The foreground shows the new Place d’Armes, a grassy fan-shaped square that is enclosed by a white fence and lines of trees on the bottom of the painting. To the left of the Place d’Armes is the old village of Versailles. In the middle of the painting, a royal procession led by guardsmen on horseback makes its way through the Place d’Armes and through a new forecourt, the Cour d’Honneur, towards a gate, the Porte d’Honneur. Beyond that gate lies the new paved Cour Royale. The Cour Royale features four new buildings. The two larger ones found toward the centre are the Communs, which were built in 1662. The wing on the left (south) houses the pantries and kitchens, the wing on the right (north) the stables. There are two other smaller, narrower buildings that flank the Communs and lie towards the outside of the Cour Royale. They contained the wood reserve on the left (south) and a shed for coaches on the right (north). To the right of the coach shed are three water reservoirs that were used to supply water to the ponds and fountains of the garden. The square building that can be seen on the western (far) end of the coach shed housed the Thetys Grotto (built in 1666), another elaborate water feature. Behind the Château, the vast expanse of the gardens can be seen with the Grand Perspective stretching west into the distance (this later becomes the Grand Canal in 1668-1669). To the left of the Château can be seen the Orangery, which was constructed by Le Nôtre in 1664; Le Nôtre also built a Menagerie, located to the southwest of the Château, which cannot be seen in the painting.
Louis XIV kicked off these improvements at Versailles with the purpose of displaying his power and grandiosity. In 1664, he held the first of what would be many big parties at Versailles. The celebration, entitled The Party of the Delights of the Enchanted Island, ran for one week from May 7-13 with 600 guests in attendance. The party was inspired by an Italian epic poem6 in which a magician, Alcina, imprisons the knight Ruggiero and his companions in her palace on an enchanted island. Guests were treated to a rich selection of entertainments that centered on the theme including fireworks, a carousel, theatre and ballet performances, parades, horse races, rides, and a lottery. The party had a program guide that numbered 58 pages! There were refreshments and elaborate meals served by servants in mask and costume. Guests also delighted at the sight of exotic animals in the royal menagerie such as an elephant, a camel, and a bear. French actor and playwright Molière and Italian composer and violinist Lully organized the entertainment. Louis XIV himself danced the part of Ruggiero in a ballet, The Princess of Elide, that had been written for this particular occasion by the two artists. The Round Pool (which later became Apollo’s Fountain) was used to stage a recreation of Alcina’s palace. At the conclusion of the performance, Alcina and her servants departed her castle while riding on the backs of a whale and two whale calves.
The illustrations below depict scenes from the party. Note the elephant and camel in the first one, the ballet performance in the second (Louis XIV, who had a starring role, was quite proud of his dancing ability7), and the castle of Alcina in the third. If I had the ability to time travel and my choice of where I could visit, this party is definitely a top-five destination.
The celebration was officially dedicated to the two Queens of France: Louis XIV’s mother, Anne of Austria, and his wife, Maria-Theresa of Spain. However, the party’s unofficial honoree was Françoise-Louise de la Baume Le Blanc, Duchess de la Vallière, the first official mistress8 of Louis XIV. In fact, Louise had been living at Versailles since her affair with the King began in 1661. Their relationship was an open secret at the time of the party and a popular topic of gossip.
On July 16, 1668, a second giant party was held at Versailles with 1,500 guests in attendance. The Grand Royal Entertainment was held to celebrate the military successes of France during the War of Devolution with Spain9 and the signing of the Peace Treaty of Aix-Chapelle. Louis XIV also had a new mistress, Françoise-Athénaïse de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Marquise de Montespan, to whom the celebrations were dedicated.
The party lasted for one night and took place in the gardens. The celebration began in the late afternoon with a visit to the Dragon Fountain, which makes for an impressive sight as its main water jet shoots water up to a height of 27 metres (88.5 feet), making it the tallest and most powerful water feature at Versailles.
Guests were then invited to partake in a lavish afternoon tea in the Star Grove. Following that, members of the court were then delivered via coach and sedan chair to the site of what would be the highlight of the festivities: a comedic ballet performance of George Dandin, which featured the music of Molière and Lully as well as the choreography of ballet master Pierre Beauchamp. The ballet required more than a hundred dancers, and the elaborate set decoration included blue tapestries decorated with fleur-de-lis and 32 crystal chandeliers. The performance was followed up with a feast and a ball.
At the conclusion of the festivities, the guests were taken to the bottom of the Grand Perspective. There, they enjoyed a view across the gardens looking back towards the Château. The residence was lit up from inside, and there were rows of illuminated statues and painted vases lined up along the Great Lawn. Just when the guests thought it couldn’t get any better, fireworks burst across the sky. It must have felt like a fairy tale ending to an already magical evening.
On the day after The Grand Royal Entertainment, Louis XIV concluded that the existing château built by his father was too small. Rather than demolishing the old residence and building anew, Louis XIV had Le Vau construct a new white stone building that enveloped the older residence on its north, west, and south sides (shown in the 3-D model below). This building is known as the enveloppe or the château neuf to distinguish it from Louis XIII’s original structure. The château neuf resembled a baroque Roman villa, the popular architectural style at the time of its construction. It contrasted sharply with the red brick, stone, and slate of Louis XIII’s original residence so much that it looked like there were two châteaux, one slotted into the other. Construction took place from 1668-1674; after Le Vau passed away in 1670, architect François d’Orbay continued with the project. Le Brun guided the interior decoration of the new residence. The château neuf consisted of three separate wings, each with three floors: the ground floor, the main floor, and the upper floor10. The main floor of the north and south wings consisted of two symmetrical suites of apartments: one for the King on the northern end (the Grand appartement du roi), and one for the Queen on the south (Grand appartement de la reine). The west wing, the one that overlooked the gardens, contained some of these apartments on its northern and southern ends. The King’s and Queen’s apartments were then separated by a large, marble terrace that lay in the middle of the west wing.
Below is a floor plan of the main floor of the expanded Château de Versailles. Louis XIII’s original château is shaded grey. The new château neuf, which enclosed the older structure, is outlined in green. The King’s new suite of apartments is shown on the right (the north) in blue, and the Queen’s on the left (south) in yellow. The terrasse can be seen separating them in the middle of the west wing. This symmetrical design of apartments was an unprecedented feature in French palace design. It’s suggested that Louis XIV had this identical set of rooms built for his wife, Maria-Theresa, because he intended to establish her as Queen of Spain. They would rule as dual monarchs: equal in power, status, and State Apartments. (See footnote 9 for more information on why Louis XIV felt Maria-Theresa had a claim to the Spanish throne).
The expanded western/garden-side façade of the château can be seen in the painting below. The King’s State Apartments were located on the left, and the Queen’s on the right. You can see the large open-air terrace in-between them, located on the main floor.
Below is a model that shows the western/garden side façade from above, with a view of the terrace (which contained a fountain in the middle). You can see how the new white stone building of the château neuf was built around the red-brick residence of Louis XIII. The two small inner courtyards help to mark out the different structures.
The King and the Queen already had apartments located in the original residence that had been built by Louis XIII. They retained these rooms even as Versailles expanded, but they were meant for their own private use (you can learn more about and tour the King’s Private Apartments in this post). The new State Apartments built on the main floor in the château neuf were public spaces and served a performative function (you can learn more about and tour the King’s State Apartments in this post). Each apartment suite consisted of seven adjoining rooms: a vestibule; a guard room; an antechamber; a chamber; a large cabinet or office; a bedroom; and then a smaller cabinet. Three of the rooms were located in the western wing overlooking the gardens, and then four more found in their respective north and south wings (you can see this in the floor plan, shown previously). The apartments on the main floor connected to the ground floor through a ceremonial stairway.
The State Apartments were richly decorated, and their ceilings had paintings with allegorical or mythological themes. To complement Louis XIV’s identification with the Sun God Apollo, each room was dedicated to a planet and its associated Greco-Roman deity (Venus, Mars, Mercury, etc.). Further decoration of the rooms included references to historical figures from antiquity, such as Alexander the Great and the Roman Emperor Augustus; Louis XIV’s association with them was meant to highlight his similar heroic qualities. The walls were covered with polychrome marble, and large bay windows filled the rooms with natural light.
Construction on the château neuf was carried out between 1668-1674. At the same time, Le Nȏtre was busy with further improvements to the grounds of Versailles. He was tasked with making them the most magnificent of their kind in Europe. He embellished the grounds with fountains, statues, flower beds, a labyrinth, and groves of trees. From 1668-1679, Le Nȏtre had the Grand Canal built. With a length of 1,670 metres (5,479 feet, just over a mile) and a width of 62 metres (203 feet), the canal was large enough for all kinds of boats including galleys, gondolas, yachts, barges, and replicas of French battleships. In this period, the grounds of Versailles reached a peak area of 2,473 hectares (6,111 acres)11.
In the summer of 1674, Louis XIV decided it was time for another big party. The Franco-Dutch War had kicked off in 1672, and Louis XIV wanted to celebrate recent French military successes including the reconquering of the Franche-Comté (a territory that he had been bitterly forced to give up in 1668). The King also wanted to show off the impressive modifications that had been made to the grounds at Versailles, and so most of the festivities were held outside. The Grand Fête was a festival of six parties that took place between July 4 and August 31. Madame de Montspan was once more the festival honouree. The first celebration day was held on July 4 and featured an opera by Lully, Alceste, staged in the Marble Courtyard. Dinner was served in the Grove of the Marais.
On July 11 (the second celebration day), the Porcelain Trianon hosted a ballet performance by Lully, L’Eclogue de Versailles (for more on the Porcelain Trianon, read this post on the history of the Grand Trianon). A dinner illuminated by 150 candles was held in the Grove of the Feast Hall. On July 19 (the third celebration day), the Thetys Grotto served as a backdrop to a comedic ballet, Du Malaide Imaginaire, by Molière and composer Marc-Antoine Charpentier. A meal was supplied in the Menagerie. Guests also took turns boating on the Grand Canal in two gondolas that had been gifted to Louis XIV by the Republic of Venice. The gondolas and the four gondoliers sent to man them were housed in a series of buildings at the end of the Canal, which became known as “Little Venice.”
On July 28 (the fourth celebration day), a lyrical pastoral performance of La Fête de l’Amour et du Bacchus was staged at the Dragon Fountain. The audience was treated to a rich selection of fruit, ice, wine, liqueurs and jams. A light snack was served in the Grove of the Water Theatre, and then guests were serenaded by violins and oboes while enjoying their dinner in the Marble Courtyard. A fireworks display also lit up the Grand Canal.
On August 18 (the fifth celebration day), the tragedy Iphigéne by Jean Racine was performed in front of the Orangery. Food was available in the Grove of the Girandole. Later that night, guests crowded around the newly finished Apollo Fountain to watch a fireworks show that consisted of at least 5,000 rockets. The fireworks lit up an obelisk created by Le Brun, which was topped by the figure of a sun—Louis XIV’s personal emblem (seen in the picture below).
On the sixth and final evening, August 28, the Grand Canal was the centre of the entertainment. Courtiers once more took turns riding in the gondolas, accompanied by boats of musicians. The entire canal was also illuminated, as seen in the picture below.
Louis XIV was increasingly spending more time at the Château de Versailles and, with him, so too was the French Court. In 1677, he decided that he wanted to move the court and government there permanently. This was a revolutionary idea, as European kings and their courts had always lived life on the move, dividing their time and presence between different residences and regions in their territory. Versailles would have to be significantly enlarged12,13 in order to permanently house all the members of the royal family, the members of the court and their retinues, as well as all their servants. Louis XIV hired architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart to conduct this third round of building expansion at Versailles, which he began in 1678. Mansart’s additions increased the capacity of the Château five-fold, and made it possible to accommodate a further 4,000 people. He built two new stables (1679-1682) that were located at the foot of the Place d’Armes: the Petites Écuries in the south was for the cart horses, and the Grandes Écuries in the north for the saddle horses (used for riding and hunting). Two new wings containing living quarters were built to the south (1679-1682) and north (1685-1689) of the residence. Two new Ministers’ Wings (1679-1682) containing offices for the four Secretaries of State (Foreign Affairs, War, King’s Household, and Navy) were built on the north and south sides of the Cour d’Honneur. The Grand Commun14 (completed in 1684) was built in the south to house service rooms (such as kitchens and pantries), servants, and secondary officers. I’ve indicated the location of the new structures on the map below.
In 1678, Mansart demolished the outdoor terrace that had been located in the middle of the western wing of the residence and replaced it with what would become the Château’s most famous feature: the Galerie des Glaces, the Hall of Mirrors, which was completed in 1684.
At the time, mirrors were among the most expensive items that one could possess. The Republic of Venice had a monopoly on their manufacture. Louis XIV’s finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, had a requirement that all items used in the decoration of Versailles be made in France. He convinced a few Venetian glassmakers to come to France to design the mirrors for Versailles15. The Hall of Mirrors is 73 metres (239.5 feet) long by 10.5 meters (34.4 feet) wide by 12.3 meters (40.4 feet) high. It is flanked by the Salon de la Guerre (War Room) on the north side and the Salon de la Paix (Room of Peace) on the south. Three rooms from the Queen’s suite of State Apartments and three rooms from the King’s suite of State Apartments (the ones that had been located in the west wing), were absorbed into the new design, which you can see in the map below.
The Hall of Mirrors contains 17 mirror-clad arches that reflect 17 arcaded windows. Each arch contains 21 mirrors, for a total of 357. Marble pilasters topped with gilded bronze capitals are located on either side of the arches; the capitals are decorated with fleur-de-lys and roosters (France’s national animal). The room was originally illuminated by thousands of candles, and contained silver furniture (later melted down to fund Louis XIV’s army during the War of the League of Augsburg from 1688-1697).
The ceiling contains 30 paintings by Le Brun that portray the military and diplomatic victories of Louis XIV achieved from 1661-1678. A painting in the central panel, Le Roi Gouverne par Lui-même (the King Governs Alone), encapsulates Louis XIV’s attitude towards leadership and the distribution of power. The room was designed to impress, and during weddings and diplomatic events Louis XIV’s throne would be placed on a platform at the south end of the room in front of the Salon de la Paix.
On May 6, 1682, Versailles was declared the official residence of Louis XIV, his court, and the government of France. There had always been royal courts, but the way Louis XIV structured court life and power at Versailles was truly innovative for several reasons. The first was that he had the court and government permanently housed and centralized at the Château de Versailles. Louis XIV exercised his power by making his people come to him, rather than going to them by moving his court between different regional bases as had been the tradition of royal households for centuries. To make this work, he mandated that his nobles spend time every year at Versailles and was strict about their consequent attendance. He took note of which courtiers were present and absent, and treated them accordingly. He saw everyone, especially those who were hoping to escape his attention. His subjects felt compelled to be at Versailles as much as possible, with the threat of royal disfavour hanging over them if they weren’t. “He is a man I never see,” the King once commented of a courtier, the chill in his words akin to a harsh judicial blow.
Housing the government and royal court in its entirety at Versailles allowed for the second of Louis XIV’s innovations, which was his ability to centralize power to a degree that no monarch had ever enjoyed before. All favours of land, titles, offices, pensions, and more were granted through him. Honour and income were all dependant on him. Louis XIV’s royal approval had the ability to make or break not only an individual, but also their family for generations to come. He was truly the “Sun King”, the centre of power around which all of France revolved. This was a lot of responsibility, and the King needed a system in which he could effectively manage all of that expectant energy. And so he made Versailles a stage upon which he was the focus as well as the master of spectacle. Every moment of Louis XIV’s day became a performance and an act of state, and he made his courtiers desperate to play a part in it. Elaborate ceremonies were made of his most private moments: hundreds of courtiers and members of the general public watched him eat his evening meal (the Grand Couvert), and his bedroom was filled every morning and evening with nobles who helped him perform the rituals of “getting up” (lever) and “going to bed” (coucher). The lever and coucher ceremonies were so involved that they were divided into two: the Petit Lever/Coucher and the Grand Lever/Coucher. Nobles were admitted into the King’s Bedchamber and the ceremonies were based on rank. For example, with the lever, the first to enter the King’s Bedchamber were those with the right to see Louis XIV still in his bed (the Petit Lever). Then those with the right to see the King in his dressing gown, seated in a chair, would be given admittance. Finally, the entire court would enter as he was being dressed (the Grand Lever). By the end of the ceremony, almost 150 people would be in the room. This same sequence of events took place in the evening but in reverse, with the crowd eventually dwindling to those privileged few who had the right to see the King in bed once more.
The degree to which rank and rituals of etiquette were connected was the third of Louis XIV’s innovations with Versailles. Strict rules of court etiquette served to establish and maintain a hierarchy that held Louis XIV at the top. Everyone else became obsessed with where exactly they were slotted in beneath him. Prestige, rank, and appearance were crucial. Extravagance was compulsory; trying to keep up with the expensive court lifestyle led to nobles depending on handouts from the King and/or the state treasury. Political tension and satisfaction fixated on who had the honour of sitting on a chair in the King’s presence and who was required to stand. At the Grand Couvert, only twelve titled ladies had the right to be seated on stools before the royal table while hundreds of other courtiers had to stand and watch as the King ate his evening meal. Further, your rank determined whether your chair had a backrest or armrests, effectively setting up how comfortable you would be while basking in the glory of the King’s presence. But there was always hope for advancement! Maybe today would be the day in which one would have the privilege of holding the King’s mirror or wash basin as he shaved! The man who held the candlestick that illuminated the King as he undressed held one of the highest positions of all. Louis XIV reasoned that if he kept all of the powerful people in his country at Versailles and focused all of their attention on him, making them compete with each other for his favour, then they would be too busy to scheme against him. According to French political theorist Henri de Saint-Simon, Louis XIV’s granting of distinction was proof that “the king possessed before all men the art of giving importance to trifles.” It may seem crazy to contemporary audiences, but it seems to have been effective: Louis XIV reigned for an impressive 72 years. At the beginning of his rule, Louis XIV’s kingdom had almost been torn apart by violent civil war. The centralization of power at Versailles with mandatory courtier attendance combined with the fixation of rank through exercises of etiquette seems to have managed to tame the dissident impulses of his people, as well as preventing the regional concentrations of power that could have effectively challenged his own. There may be some truth to the adage of keeping your friends close and your enemies closer.
A fourth innovation of court life at Versailles was how visible and accessible the monarch made himself to the people, courtiers and commoners alike. I’ve already mentioned how Louis XIV transformed many aspects of his personal life into public ritual. In addition to this, Louis XIV opened most of the Château and its gardens to the general public. Any well-dressed individual could walk past the Écuries and through the first entry gate of the Château into the Place d’Armes. Beggars, monks, sex workers, and smallpox victims were the only people specifically turned away at this point. Visitors would then approach the Gate of Honour. If the individual was wearing a sword, indicating their upper-class status, the person was permitted to continue. No sword? No problem! You were allowed to hire one on the spot. The now-armed visitor was duly granted access to the residence and its grounds. Consider the irony the next time you’re standing in the long security line to enter the Château. Rules of etiquette did bar commoners from entry into certain rooms when the King was in them, but they would be allowed in the moment after the monarch had stepped out. An English writer, Arthur Young, was shocked to see this exact thing happen in Louis XVI’s Bedchamber when he visited Versailles in 178716. People gathered in the Hall of Mirrors on a daily basis in order to catch a glimpse of the King as he made his way from the State Apartments to the Royal Chapel. There were also opportunities to see the King exercising in the gardens, or watching him eat at the Grand Couvert. Louis XIV took his public accessibility seriously. When his daughter-in-law, Dauphine Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria (1660-1690), asked to be excused from a ball because she felt unwell, he refused, saying: “We are not like private individuals. We owe ourselves entirely to the public.” Louis XIV’s predecessors would increasingly retreat from living such a public life, and their popularity suffered as a result.
A fifth and final innovation of court life at Versailles was that Louis XIV made it fun. I’ve already mentioned the grand entertainments and firework displays. In addition, there were thrice-a-week parties in the State Apartments with dancing, music, gambling, and tables heaped with food, wine, and desserts (for more information on these soirées d’appartement, see my second post about touring the Château de Versailles which includes the State Apartments). Louis XIV was a great patron of the arts, and courtiers were kept entertained by numerous plays, operas, concerts, and ballets—some in which the King himself performed! The court life at Versailles was so exciting and rich with social and cultural opportunities that one could almost forget that being there was more a requirement than a choice.
On any given day 3,000-10,000 courtiers could be present at Versailles, with 6,000-7,000 being the average. Slightly more than half of Louis XIV’s court lived outside the Château. Around 3,000 of them either lived in or stayed nearby with acquaintances in the new town of Versailles, which had been relocated and specially built by Louis XIV from 1671 onwards (see footnote 12a for more information). Another number of courtiers known as les galopins (the gallopers) made the daily trip from Paris to be at the Versailles court. Around 4,000 members of this daily assembly of courtiers had lodgings in the Château itself or one of its dependencies. Living at the Château had benefits that came hand-in-hand with drawbacks. On the one hand, lodging was free as it was provided to courtiers at the state’s expense. On the other hand, it had a high moral cost: Louis XIV believed that the courtiers who resided at Versailles owed everything of value in their lives to him as their monarch. On the plus side, there was a certain prestige attached to those who lived at the Château in a world where rank and esteem were very important. On the down side, the honour of residing at Versailles was in sharp contrast to the actual lived experience of those who stayed there. Even with the recent renovations and expansions, space at the Château was still at a premium. Courtiers who weren’t royal or titled enough to be considered deserving of anything but the most basic accommodation were only given two rooms, which was not a lot of space for someone to house their whole family and any servants they had in their employ. The rooms lacked a hearth or any basic kitchen facilities, which was a problem because the windows were drafty and meals were not supplied by the King. Courtiers had to figure out how to feed themselves at their own expense, usually through the hiring of outside catering. The rooms could also be smelly thanks to the latrines found further down the hallway or in the staircases. Overall, the living conditions at Versailles paled in comparison to what a courtier would be used to in their own home. A person would actually live more comfortably if they were able to maintain their own separate lodgings either in the town of Versailles or Paris, where they could keep all their servants and their carriage. But this was definitely more inconvenient, especially since ladies were required to change their outfit three or four times a day.
After Maria-Theresa’s death in 1683, Louis XIV had modifications done to the Private Apartments. He had some of the rooms from the Queen’s Private Apartments reallocated into a third set of apartments for him, the Petit appartements du roi (Small Apartments of the King). Unlike the King’s State Apartments and the King’s Private Apartments, which were largely open to courtiers and members of the general public alike, access to the King’s Small Apartments was provided only through personal invitation. In the illustration below, the King’s State Apartments are shown on the far right, in dark purple. The King’s Private Apartments are shown to the right of the Marble Courtyard in light purple. The new King’s Small Apartments are shown to the left and above the Marble Courtyard in medium purple. The Queen’s State Apartments are shown to the far left in yellow. The Queen’s Private Apartments were reduced to the ones that are shown in dark pink. No further need to have symmetrical his-and-her apartments, I guess, now that his preferred candidate for Queen of Spain was gone.
In 1683, Louis XIV also married his third official mistress, Françoise d’Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, in secret. Françoise came from an impoverished background17. Her inferior social position meant that she was not openly acknowledged as Louis XIV’s wife nor did she become Queen. Nonetheless, she did have a powerful influence on the King and was one of his closest advisors.
In 1699, Louis XIV had Mansart begin work on a new Royal Chapel. It was the fifth, and final, chapel built at Versailles since the reign of Louis XIII. It would also be the last grand project that both Louis XIV and Mansart undertook at the Château. Upon Mansart’s death in 1708, work on the chapel was completed by his assistant (and brother-in-law) Robert de Cotte in 1710. The design for the chapel incorporates gothic architecture and baroque decoration, and has a two-floor layout that is similar to the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, Germany (which was built for Charlemagne around 792 C.E.). The chapel was dedicated to Saint Louis IX (1214-1290), patron saint and ancestor of Louis XIV.
In 1701, Louis XIV had his Ceremonial Bedchamber moved from its location in the State Apartments to a more central position in the residence. He had it placed on the main (second) floor, overlooking the Marble Courtyard, and backing against the Hall of Mirrors.
Louis XIV passed away on September 1, 1715. His reign of 72 years was so long that he survived his son Louis, the Grand Dauphin (who died in 1711 at the age of 49), and his grandson, Louis the Petit Dauphin (who passed away in 1712 at the age of 29). He was succeeded by his great-grandson, Louis XV. Louis XIV is the figure who played the most prominent role in the creation of Versailles, and so it seems fitting to end part 1 of the Château’s history at this point. I’ll continue part 2 in my next blog post, covering the history of the Château under Louis XV and Louis XVI (until 1783). Thanks for reading!
¹ Numerous palaces throughout Europe have been inspired by the magic and grandeur of Versailles: the Peterhof Palace in St. Petersburg, Russia (constructed 1714-1723, nicknamed “the Russian Versailles”); the Palacio Real de Madrid in Spain (constructed 1738-1755); the Schloss Schönbrunn in Vienna, Austria (built in the 1740s-1750s); Karlsruhe Schloss (first built in 1715, rebuilt entirely of stone in 1746); the Reggia di Caserta in southern Italy (1752- around 1773); and King Ludwig II of Bavaria’s Schloss Herrenchiemsee (1878-1886).
² This distinction between a rural and urban grand estate is not made in the English language the way it is in French, so in English it is most often referred to as the Palace of Versailles. For more information on the difference between châteaux, palaces, and castles, see my post on the Loire Valley.
3 The website for the Château de Versailles contains a page with a video that shows the changes made to the structure over time. Click here to see Versailles from the time it was first built in 1624 as a hunting lodge by Louis XIII through its major construction periods under Louis XIV, up until the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1792.
4 Maria-Theresa is also the subject of Diego Velázquez’s famous painting, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honour), 1656. The figure of a young Maria-Theresa in this painting (shown below) with her wide hooped dress inspired an art installation that appeared on the streets of Madrid, which Neil and I got to see when we were there! These Las Meninas (from the Meninas Madrid Gallery) are a series of 80 identical sculptures of a female figure with a wide hooped dress and a cropped hairstyle. (I would argue that the hairstyle comes from Velázquez’s painting of Maria-Theresa when she was fifteen, which I already used in the post above). Sculptor Antonio Azzato designed the Meninas and recruited a group of artists, fashion designers, and singers to help decorate them. The Meninas were auctioned off for charity in July 2018.
5 Louis Le Vau and Charles Le Brun also worked together on the renovations of the Louvre and the Tuileries Palaces, which began in 1659. See my post on the Louvre for more information about that project.
6 Orlando Furioso was written by Italian poet Ludivico Ariosto (known as “Ariosto”) from 1505-1532. In one of the episodes of the poem, the knight Ruggiero arrives on an enchanted island that belongs to the magician Alcina and her sister Morgana. Alcina falls in love with Ruggiero and casts a spell on him to keep him on the island. Later, Ruggiero’s fianceé, Bradamante, comes to the island disguised as a man (Ruggiero’s brother, Ricciardo) in search of him. Morgana then falls in love with “Ricciardo” and many spectacular magical antics ensue.
7 Below is an image of Louis XIV dressed as Apollo, a role he played in 1653 in The Ballet of Night by Giacomo Torelli, based on verses by Isaac de Benserade. The ballet called for over 100 costumes, designed by Henri Gissey. Louis XIV played the role of the rising sun dressed in golden feathers. He would reprise his role as Apollo in several court ballets.
8 Louise was the first maîtresse-en-titre (chief mistress) of Louis XIV. This was an official position that came with its own apartments. The title came into use during the reign of Louis XIII’s father, Henri IV. Louis XIV had three official mistresses who would hold that title: Françoise-Louise de la Baume Le Blanc, Duchess de la Vallière (1661-1667); Françoise-Athénaïse de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Marquise de Montespan (1667-1681); and Françoise d’Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon (1680-1715). Of course, a chief mistress does not mean the only mistress. Louis XIV had relations with at least two dozen other women. I would almost think it’s weird that their names all began with “Françoise” but there’s a lot of women with “Marie-othername”and “Maria-othername” coming our way soon; Maria-Theresa was just the warm-up.
9 In 1659, France and Spain ended 24 years of war with the Treaty of Pyrenees. Philip IV of Spain agreed to marry his daughter, Maria-Theresa, to Louis XIV on the condition that the marriage voided her inheritance rights to her father’s Spanish throne. To compensate her for this, a dowry of 500,000 gold crowns was promised, but never actually paid, to Louis XIV. When Philip IV of Spain passed away in September 1665, Louis XIV claimed that since Maria-Theresa’s dowry had not actually been paid, his wife’s renunciation of her inheritance rights was invalid. Maria-Theresa was born out of Philip IV’s first marriage, whereas the underage Spanish heir Charles II (four years old at the time) was the result of Philip IV’s second marriage. Thus, Louis XIV argued, the estate of Philip IV properly “devolved” to Maria-Theresa. This led to the War of Devolution, which broke out on May 24, 1667. Louis XIV and his armies quickly conquered the Hapsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands (present-day Belgium) and other surrounding territories. Louis XIV wanted to conquer as many Spanish territories as possible. He planned to use them as bargaining chips for peace negotiations. The Spanich Franche-Comté, a region in eastern France, was one of them. He tasked Louis II de Bourbon, the Prince de Condé (known as the Grand Condé), with the military action. Condé invaded on February 4, 1668 and, a short 17 days later, all of the Franche-Comté was successfully occupied. However, Louis XIV’s plans were halted when he was informed that an alliance had been formed against him by Spain, the Netherlands, England, and Sweden. He knew that France was no match for this coalition. The Peace Treaty of Aix-Chapelle was signed on May 2, 1668. Louis XIV was allowed to keep some of his conquered Flemish territory, but he had to give up most of his conquered territories in the Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté. He was angered by this result. In particular, he felt that he had been betrayed by the Dutch, as France had provided assistance to the Dutch during their war of independence from Spain (the Eighty Years’ War of 1568-1654). Tensions would lead later to the Franco-Dutch War of 1672-1678. ANYWAY. The Grand Entertainment of July 1668 was meant to paint a bright, victorious face on what could have been otherwise considered a military and political disappointment. Charles II (Maria-Theresa’s younger half-brother) ruled Spain until he died, childless, on November 1, 1700. Charles II named Philip of Anjou as his successor. Philip of Anjou was the grandson of Louis XIV and Maria-Theresa. Philip’s father, Louis the Grand Dauphin (son of Louis XIV), could not claim the Spanish throne since he was in the line of succession for the French one. So too was Philip’s elder brother, Louis the Petit Dauphin. So the second son is up! Of course, other European countries were not a fan of having the Spanish throne in the hands of the French as that would have meant a major power imbalance. So this kicked off the War of the Spanish Succession (1700-1714). Philip V of Spain ruled from 1700-1724, and then again from 1724-1746 (with a brief seven month interruption in which his son, Louis I, ruled until he died of smallpox).
10 in Europe, the numbering of floors is done in a different sequence than in North America, so it can be a little confusing. In North America, the ground floor is called the “first” floor. In Europe, the ground floor is equal to floor “0.” In North America, the next floor up would be called the “second” floor. In Europe, this would be called the “first” floor. The three wings of the chateau neuf contained three separate floors. Instead of calling them (in accordance with North American custom) the “first”, “second”, and “third” floors, I’m referring to them respectively as the “ground floor”, the “main floor”, and the “upper floor.”
11 Under Louis XIV, the grounds of Versailles reached a peak area of 2,473 hectares (6,111 acres). Compare that with the 2.5 acres that Louis XIII started out with for his hunting lodge!. The grounds of Versailles are now only 815 hectares (2,014 acres)—roughly ⅓ the size they were during the time of Louis XIV.
12 It was at this point in his plans to expand the Château de Versailles and its grounds that Louis XIV found he had run out of room. Do you remember that earlier painting of the Château dating to 1667-1668? (Included below, once more). You can see the old medieval village of Versailles in the left corner (note the church steeple of the parish church of Saint-Julien; that is where the Grand Commun is now located). But Louis XIV was not the kind of man who would let something simple like a pre-existing town deter him. Louis XIV had Hardouin-Mansart and Le Nôtre design a new town that would be located on a new site farther away from the Château. He would then have the old town demolished to make way for his new building projects. In 1671, a royal charter offered up plots of land in this new area with the condition that the houses built there had to use pre-approved building materials and conform to a pre-determined size and style that would complement the Château. A micro-manager to the extreme, Louis XIV even regulated the colour and exterior decoration of these houses. Many of these new houses were destined to become Hôtels Particuliers for the incoming nobility. In 1673, Louis XIV had the old buildings of Versailles razed to the ground. Le Nôtre then laid out three wide, large tree-lined avenues that extended from the Château eastward into the town like sunbeams (a purposeful symbolic detail): the Avenue de Saint-Cloud, the Avenue de Paris, and the Avenue de Sceux (seals). These streets were similar to the wide pedestrian boulevards that Louis XIV was having built in Paris in place of its old (now demolished) city walls. The streets and squares found in the rest of the new town of Versailles were laid out in an orderly, rectilinear grid. A new neighbourhood was created on the northern flank of the Château to house the 20,000 construction workers and artisans of every description who came to make Louis XIV’s plans a reality. By the latter years of Louis XIV’s reign, the urban population of Versailles numbered 45,000 people.
The old town of Versailles can be seen in the lower-left side of the painting below.
The new relocated and rebuilt town of Versailles can be see in the foreground of the painting below (the Château de Versailles is in the background).
13 In 1668, Louis XIV purchased the hamlet of Trianon, which was situated within the estate of Versailles. He also razed the buildings of this little town to the ground and rehoused the inhabitants. He then directed Le Vau to build him a one-storey summer house (which you can read more about here). The Grand Trianon and the Petit Trianon are named after this lost village. In Patel’s painting above, you can maybe see the hamlet if you look really close; it was located northwest of the main residence.
14 From 1832-1986, the Grand Commun was used as a military hospital, later called the Dominique Larrey hospital. Then it lay empty and abandoned for a decade. Remarkably, much of its window glass remained unchanged from when Louis XIV had built it three hundred years earlier! In 1996, the army handed ownership of the Grand Commun to the National Estate of Versailles. A huge alteration and restoration project began. In 2006 and 2007, archaeological digs were carried out in the courtyard of the Grand Commun. That Merovingian cemetery I mentioned at the beginning of this post? It was found here; so too were traces of Louis XIII’s tennis court.
15 Legend has it that assassins were sent to poison these glassworkers to punish them for revealing the secrets of their trade. An interesting story, but it sounds apocryphal. I’d have to do a bit more digging to find out if that was true.
16 In his 1792 travel book, Travels in France, Arthur Young commented: “In viewing the King’s apartment, which he had not left a quarter of an hour [before], with those slight traits of disorder that showed he lived in it, it was amusing to see the blackguard figures that were walking uncontrolled about the palace, and even in [the king’s] bedchamber; men whose rags betrayed them to be in the last stage of poverty, and I was the only person that stared and wondered how the devil they got there.”
17 Here are a few more details concerning the background of Françoise d’Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, because they are interesting. Her father, Constant d’Aubigné, was imprisoned from 1629-1639 for conspiring against Cardinal Richelieu (Louis XIII’s Chief Minister). Françoise was born during this time period in 1635; her mother was Jeanne de Cardilhac, daughter of Constant’s jailer. When Constant was released in 1639, the family moved to the island of Martinique in the west Indies. Constant died destitute in 1647, and Françoise was sent to live with her aunt. She was then educated in a convent. Madame de Neuillant, the mother of Françoise’s godmother Suzanne de Baudéan, introduced Françoise to higher society. Françoise married French poet and novelist Paul Scarron in 1652 (he was 25 years her senior), but was widowed in 1660. Through her connections she met Madame de Montespan in 1666, Louis XIV’s current lover. In 1669, when Madame de Montespan’s second child by Louis XIV was born, Françoise was hired on as a governess. This led to her meeting Louis XIV, who was initially put off by her strict religious disposition. His feelings had softened by 1675, when he gave her a title—the Marquise de Maintenon. It is unknown when Louis XIV and Françoise began having an intimate relationship, but by the late 1670s he was spending a lot of his spare time with her. In 1680, Louis XIV gave her a prominent position in his daughter-in-law’s household (the Dauphine Maria Anna of Bavaria, who was married to Louis, the Grand Dauphin). Soon after, Madame de Montespan left court. Françoise, Madame de Maintenon, had a strong (some would argue good) influence on Louis XIV. She was also kind to Maria-Theresa who, for years, had been rudely treated by Madame de Montespan.